Measuring Community Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Evidence from a Developing Nation


Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent validity of five community risk factors and two community protective factors.

Why Homicide Clearance Rates Decrease: Evidence from the Caribbean


Police agencies and researchers have devoted significant attention to understanding and improving homicide clearance rates, which often serve as an overall barometer of police performance. Using quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the factors that contributed to a rapid decline in homicide clearances in the developing island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A variety of explanations are explored, including characteristics of homicide incidents, the communities where they occur, and the agencies that process these cases.

A Cross-National Comparison of Gangs in the United States and Trinidad and Tobago


This study compares the scope and nature of the gang problem in two communities: one in the United States and one in Trinidad and Tobago, a small-island developing state in the eastern Caribbean that has experienced a serious outbreak of violence over the past decade. Data drawn from surveys of adult arrestees reveal that among respondents, 3.2% of those in the U.S. sample and 5.1% of those in the Trinidad sample reported being a member of a gang. While there were a number of similarities between the two samples, significant differences were found between gang members in both countries.

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang-Involved Youth in Trinidad and Tobago


Objectives. To examine the prevalence of gang involvement, the risk and protective factors associated with gang involvement, and the association between gang involvement and expo- sure to multiple risk and protective factors among school-aged youth in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods. A survey instrument was administered to 2 206 students enrolled in 22 high- risk, urban public schools, from March–June 2006. It measured 30 risk factors and 13 protec- tive factors within four domains: community, school, family, and peer-individual, plus levels of alcohol/drug use and delinquency.